A history and effects of concussions in football and hockey

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A history and effects of concussions in football and hockey

History[ edit ] A concussionfrom the Latin word concussiois a frequent injury among football players. Concussions occur when the head is subject to a large impact force, resulting in a minor brain injury.

There has been a growing concern about concussions since the early s. Ina Harvard student athlete died from a head injury and the team doctors released a report titled "The Physical Aspect of American Football" in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal describing the type, severity, and number of injuries the team sustained in the season.

Tagliabue appointed rheumatologist Elliot Pellman to chair the committee. The league legal representation has been shown to have had ties to the tobacco industry legal defense. Biomechanical engineers and neurosurgeons informed the Committee that the helmet safety standard at that time was insufficient to minimize the risk of concussions.

A six-year study by the Committee concluded that, "Players who are concussed and return to the same game have fewer initial signs and symptoms than those removed from play. Return to play does not involve a significant risk of a second injury either in the same game or during the season.


A report by the Center for the Study of Retired Athletes at the University of North Carolinafor example, found a connection between numerous concussions and depression among former professional football players.

This expanded focus of health care is necessary in order to avoid any real or perceived conflicts of interest emerging in the concussion research, concussion management and related return to play decision-making process.

Brady sent a cover letter and detailed objections on behalf of NFL retired players to the presiding US district court judge, Anita Brody. Committee has drawn a number of important conclusions about head trauma and how to treat it that contradict the research and experiences of many other doctors who treat A history and effects of concussions in football and hockey concussions, not to mention the players who have suffered them.

He found about 11 percent of the study participants suffered from clinical depressionwith a threefold increased risk in former players who had a history of three or four concussions. The NFL responded to these results by claiming the study was incomplete.

It was also found that leather helmets provided similar results to modern helmets, and in some cases, the leather helmets proved to have superior protection against concussive blows. However, the leather helmets did not provide as much protection against skull fractures.

All players in the league are also mandated to take a baseline neurological and physical exam. The baseline neurological exam is either a computerized or paper and pencil exam that will test different brain functions.

The exam tests attention span, memory, language, speech skills, reasoning, planning, and organizational skills. The results of this test are used as a baseline if a player suffers a head injury at any point throughout the season.

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This also gives the physician and athletic trainer the time to go over any previous concussions, discuss the importance of reporting any symptoms of a concussion, and explain the concussion protocol that is in place for the current season.

One of these roles involves an unaffiliated neurotrauma consultant who work with other team physicians and athletic trainers to conduct evaluations.

Another position involves athletic trainers who are positioned in the booth at every game to spot potential concussions in players from both teams. These spotters review film throughout the game that could possibly result in concussions and are capable to call "medical timeouts" to relay that information to the medical personnel on the sidelines so that further evaluation can be conducted.

These spotters have been in use since the season. If the player is diagnosed with a concussion, they are prohibited from re-entering the game or practice that day.

If the medical staff rule the player clear from a concussion, then the video of that hit must be reviewed before the player can re-enter the game or practice. Along with the continuous examination prior to a concussion, the player must meet standards that are in place by the league in order to return a game or contact practice.

The player may not return to football activities until he has returned to his baseline cognitive function. Next, the player must go through a graduated exercise challenge, followed by a gradual return to practice and play. If player is feeling any setback or post- concussion symptoms, evaluation then starts from the beginning.

Finally, the team doctor and an unaffiliated neurotrauma consultant must both clear him for return to play.

The NFL Mild Traumatic Brain Committee, first formed inreported in December that the number of head injuries had remained "remarkably the same over the course of four years. Bennet Omalu examined the brain of former Pittsburgh Steeler Mike Websterhe discovered a new brain disease, which he called chronic traumatic encephalopathyor CTE.

He outlined his findings in a scientific paper published in Neurosurgery in July Omalu instead wrote a second paper in the same magazine, this time about former Pittsburgh Steeler Terry Long. Ira Casson, who was then co-chair of MTBI, denied in a televised interview that there was any link between head injuries sustained playing in the NFL and long-term brain damage.

His repeated denials won him the nickname "Dr. L had tried to funnel the funds it gave to the NIH towards its own studies. The League rejected the accusations. Several rule changes took place between and NFL commissioner Roger Goodell issued a memo in December to all 32 teams stating that a player who sustains a concussion cannot return to play if he shows signs or symptoms, such as inability to remember assignments or plays, a gap in memory and persistent dizziness.

This move changed the rule saying a player cannot return only if he has lost consciousness. Robert Boland, professor of sports management at New York University and former college football player says, "In the short-run, [the NFL] is still thriving," but downward trends in youth football players shows that future generations "might have less of an intimate attachment to the sport.History.

A concussion, from the Latin word concussio, is a frequent injury among football monstermanfilm.comsions occur when the head is subject to a large impact force, resulting in a minor brain injury. There has been a growing concern about concussions since the early s.

The study included National Hockey League Methods: football leagues [4]. The Concussion in Sport Group has defined concussion as a patho- The effect of concussion history on cognitive-motor integration in elite hockey players Research Article total of athletes (mean age 17; all identified male).

Nov 21,  · Sidney Crosby returned to the NHL on Monday, quickly shaking off the cobwebs after plus months on the sidelines and opening the scoring in a game against the New York Islanders.

Jul 23,  · Former college football player Adrian Arrington and other former athletes brought the suit against the NCAA, alleging that it was negligent in how it treated concussions because of its failure to.

Studies on the cumulative effects of concussions in high school athletes have shown that even mild concussions can result in serious long-term problems, as well as by the National Football League and National Hockey League.

than players with no prior history of concussion. Contrary to popular opinion, concussions are not a recent discovery in football, and this recent upwelling is not the first coming of the concussion crisis in American sports.

A history and effects of concussions in football and hockey

It emerged more than a century ago, in the very first decades of football.

Concussions in American football - Wikipedia