Those five are the duties of universal obligation. Knowledge, magnanimity, and energy, these three, are the virtues universally binding.
Historiography[ edit ] Since the territory understood by the term 'Austria' underwent drastic changes over time, dealing with a History of Austria raises a number of questions, eg. Furthermore, should an Austrian history include the period —, when it nominally did not exist?
Accordingly, within Austria there are also regionally and temporally varying affinities to adjacent countries. History of Europe Human habitation of current Austria can be traced back to the first farming communities of the early Stone Age Paleolithic era.
In the late Iron Age it was occupied by people of the Hallstatt Celtic culture c. The people first organised as a nation state as a Celtic kingdom referred to by the Romans as Noricumdating from c. The most important Roman settlement was at Carnuntumwhich can still be visited today as an excavation site.
In the 6th century, Germanic people, the Bavarii occupied these lands until it fell to the Frankish Empire in the 9th century. In the 10th century an eastern east of the River Enns outpost of the Duchy of Bavariabordering Hungarywas established as the Marchia orientalis March of the East or ' Margraviate of Austria ' inruled by the Margraves of Babenberg.
From the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa created an independent duchy Privilegium Minus under the House of Babenberguntil its extinction incorresponding to modern Lower Austria. Following the Babenberg dynasty and a brief interregnumAustria came under the rule of the German king Rudolf I of Habsburg —beginning a dynasty that would last through seven centuries becoming progressively distinct from neighbouring Bavariawithin the Holy Roman Empire.
The 15th and early 16th century saw considerable expansion of the Habsburg territories through diplomacy and marriages to include Spainthe Netherlands and parts of Italy.
This expansionism, together with French aspirations and the resultant Habsburg-French or Bourbon-Habsburg rivalry were important factors shaping European History for years — However the Ottoman Empire now lay directly adjacent to the Austrian lands. Even after the unsuccessful first Siege of Vienna by the Turks inthe Ottoman threat persisted for another one and a half centuries.
The 16th Century also saw the spread of the Reformation. From around the Habsburg policy of recatholicisation or Catholic Renewal Rekatholisierung eventually led to the Thirty Years' War — Originally a religious war, it was also a struggle for power in central Europe, particularly the French opposition to the Habsburg Holy Roman Empire.
Eventually the pressure of the anti-Habsburg coalition of France, Sweden, and most Protestant German states contained their authority to the Austrian and Czech lands in Inthe Ottoman forces were beaten back from Vienna a second time and eventually, in the Great Turkish War —pushed back beyond Belgrade.
These acquisitions together with conquests in the Balkans gave Austria its greatest territorial extent to date. Subsequently, Austria lost Silesia to Prussia. These Silesian Wars initiated a long-standing tension between Austria and Prussia.
During her reign extensive reforms were initiated, and when Francis died inthese were continued by her son, Joseph II Emperor —; Archduke — However his successor, his brother, Leopold II —was much more conservative.
The next emperor, his son Francis II —found himself at war with France in the First — and Second Coalition Wars — the prelude to the Napoleonic Wars —in which Austria lost further territory. Following further Austrian losses in the Third Coalition War — the future of the Hapsburg Empire looked increasingly uncertain.
Napoleon I had declared himself Emperor of France in May and was busy reorganising much of the lands of the Holy Roman Empire, and looked to be assuming the title of emperor too, as a second Charlemagne.
Inhaving held both titles in the interim, he resigned the imperial crown of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation, which then ceased to exist.High school sports persuasive essays advertisements essay writing dates le pacs et le concubinage dissertation writing essays for scholarships zoning map pollution of air and water essay human development theories essay writerHow to write a character traits essay.
May 09, · Lijun Peng Dr. L. Swart European History Oct. 29, Question: Louis XIV declared the goal was: “One King, one law, one faith.” Analyze the methods the king used to achieve this objective and discuss the extent to which he was successful.
Louis XIV was a remarkable boy-king who ruled France for an incredible 72 years. Louis XIV was born in September and was the firstborn son of King Louis XIII and Anne of Austria.
An exploration of the nature and history of capitalism. Global capitalism, colonies and Third-World economic realities. write essays for scholarships; comparing and contrasting essay. example of persuasive essay; king louis xiv absolutism essays; annie dillard teaching a stone to talk essay; essay helpers review; 7 army values essay; dissertation abstract international online; essays on enlightenment period.
Weebly makes it surprisingly easy to create a high-quality website, blog or online store. Over 40 million people use Weebly to bring their unique ideas to life.